Ask business owners about open offices and you'll hear dreamy musings about plant-covered walls, Ping-Pong tables, natural light and work-jamming.
What you don't hear so much in the breathless descriptions of 21st century workspaces: the grumbling from employees who can't focus on their jobs because of all the distractions. Or the stories of workers who retreat to home offices to escape all the creativity and fun -- so they can get some work done.
That's what happened to Carolyn Smuts, a self-described "uptight, stick-in-the-mud" marketing director for NEAD App Development. In 2010, the tech company moved into a Huntington Beach, Calif., warehouse decorated with life-size Darth Vader cut-outs and outfitted with a basketball court and wall-to-wall whiteboards. A surfboard manufacturer was next door.
"I worked out of there two weeks solid and got done half of what I would have accomplished at home," she said. "Even trying to answer e-mails there, somebody would hit me in the back of the head with a Nerf dart." She started working from home more, where she didn't have to share a desk "with people's Stormtrooper action figures." Smuts, 40, wondered whether her reaction reflects a generational gap: The younger employees seemed to love the hip office.
'It Was Like We Were Google'
Founder T.J. Sokoll loved the price. Instead of leasing a cramped office for $2.50 per square foot, he got 4,000 square feet of industrial space at 69 cents a square foot. The vaulted ceilings and rooftop meetings appealed to clients, investors and interns. "It was like we were Google," Sokoll said.
The fun didn't last long. The company had grown too fast and went back to a small office a year ago after reducing staff from 20 to eight. Employees sometimes work from home, and the company rents conference rooms for meetings or uses Google Hangouts to communicate. While he misses the chair races, "our productivity level is way up," Sokoll admitted.
Balancing the promise of creative office space with the need to get work done isn't easy, said Elizabeth Dukes, a co-founder of iOffice, a Houston company that provides software and consulting for facility managers. Her new book, "Wide Open Workspace," chronicles the evolution of the American office from the cubicle farms satirized in movies such as "Office Space" to the open plans that have become de rigueur in Silicon Valley.
Even her business has struggled to get it right. IOffice revamped a 7,000-square-foot, 1920s-era printing press building, leaving it completely open to foster collaboration and serendipitous encounters among staff. The arrangement saves on rent and allows the company to tout a greener footprint, Dukes notes.
25 Employees and Their Dogs
Yet 25 employees -- plus their dogs -- in one big room can get chaotic. The company converted two closets into quiet rooms with soundproofing material. Employees can also work from home, a library or a coffee shop. "Some employees need that head-down type of quiet place they can reserve for phone calls or certain kinds of work," Dukes said.
Mint's co-founder, Al Navarro, allayed some fears by giving all employees their own large desks and providing quiet conference rooms. He says most people have been happy. "People use headphones as walls, so now there's some etiquette that's developed around not disturbing people when they have their headphones on."
Two big defenses of open floor plans are aesthetics and that ease to jam -- to unite "people of many different backgrounds to creatively brainstorm," Alessandro Di Fiore, CEO of the European Centre for Strategic Innovation, once blogged. When the Goshen (Ind.) Chamber of Commerce set up a co-working space in an abandoned insurance office in 2012, it struggled to attract tenants with a corporate feel.
Things changed when Grace Bonewitz, a partner at advertising agency Eyedart Creative Studio, moved her employees in last November, on the condition that she have free rein over an office redesign. She took out cubicles and added couches, a coffee bar and lots of plants. Now there are 13 startups sharing the space, including a furniture maker, software developers, website designers,and a boutique magazine publisher. "The space was dull and lifeless," she said. "Once we breathed some life into it, members came quickly."