The country's October exports were worth $27.15 billion more than its imports for the month, the largest figure for any month this year except July, MarketWatch reported.
Leaders from the G20 countries are due to meet in South Korea this week, where they will discuss issues including currency values.
"This large trade surplus will likely add to global pressure for China to allow more currency appreciation," wrote RBC analyst Brian Jackson in a research note.
In October, Chinese exports were up 22.9% from a year earlier. Imports rose 25.3% year-on-year.